Tag Archives: USAID

Gene Sharp, Nonviolence Evangelist

New Orleans     Gene Sharp was not well-known, except where it mattered, and that was among the groups of activists here and abroad who tried to strategize about how to make change when faced with oppressive, often dictatorial, governments against amazing odds.  He wrote a shelf full of books about nonviolence.  Evangelizing, theorizing, and advising on the use of nonviolence strategies and tactics was the life he lived as both an academic and director of the Alfred Einstein Institute in Cambridge, which he founded, and where he worked virtually until his recent death at 90 years of age.

I didn’t know Sharp as well as I knew of his work and the rumors of his work.  In the early years of the Organizers’ Forum fifteen years ago we did two dialogues a year, one on domestic issues and one internationally.  Both were ad hoc offerings for community and labor organizers, as well as other activists, who came together in a form of dialectical “adult” education to better understand the issues and the work.   Barbara Bowen and I organized a workshop on developing practice and thinking on strategy and tactics at a retreat center near Boston.  Stephen Lerner and David Chu talked about corporate campaigns for example.  I had learned about Sharp’s work originally by reading an article in the New York Times magazine about the role he and a former army colonel had played in the background of developments that had effectively challenged power in Eastern European countries.  Organizers there touted his assistance with high praise.

Both Gene and the Colonel attended and they were forceful advocates for the power of nonviolent strategies.  They clearly saw the meeting as a chance to build a bridge to work in the United States to complement their efforts internationally.  Gene later sent me four of his books, which were fascinating.   Sharp was most famous for a list of 198 possible nonviolent tactics that he assembled.  Interesting, that for all his writing and work undergirding the political philosophy of nonviolence, it was a simple tool like that list that was most useful.  I referenced it in Nuts & Bolts for example.  Adding more on the use of social media would bring the list way over 200!

Some of the work was controversial.   His work was largely funded by USAID, not a usual instrument of social change.  Many of the countries where they agitated were Eastern Bloc communist governments.  The work in Burma/Myanmar was often tainted by questions of whether it involved the CIA.

These questions are impossible to resolve, and time softens the edges as the years have gone by and the struggles continue.  The old adage about watching sausage or democracy made is not for the squeamish, might apply here as well.

The one thing that was incontestable is that Sharp’s commitment to nonviolence and nonviolent change was absolute, and that’s enough to say about a life lived valuably on one straight and true path.


Stealing Land Because They Can in Manzanales

Maria Amalia

Maria Amalia

Tegucigalpa Coming back from a visit with our friends at the women’s coffee cooperative in Marcala having both taken important steps forward in our emerging relationship as well as enjoyed their hospitality with a great experience on staying and meeting on the mountains, we drove back along the three hour construction site that marks entering the capitol city.   In the suburbs we wound our way back up the cobbled,slippery roads to a hillside marked every 20 or 30 yards with rubble or holes or whatever.  It turned out talking to the families who still lived there that these were their home sites until only months previously.  They called the area Manzanales.

Iusaidn the rain we walked with many of the women. There had been 125 families that lived on this hillside.  We were working with close to 40 of them who were still trying to hold on some way or another.  The problem confounded most logic.  These were families that had title to the land and in many cases had lived there for 20 years or more.  Suddenly on the very day of “golpe” coup 2 years ago, a bulldozer showed up and began plowing under their houses.  A judge had decided that he wanted the property, so was simply taking it.  Higher above the hillside we could see the new expressway still being built.  The judge wanted the property for himself for a quick sale for a lucrative access ramp to the new highway.

This all sounds unbelievable, but we saw the shacks people had chouseonstructed with what was left of their houses.  We saw the US-AID tarps some had been given.  We visited with people.  We brushed away the security guards hired by the judge who tried to prevent us from walking around the land with our members.  We heard the stories of harassment from these same guards and the “bombs” that had hurt even small children.

The period of martial law and extralegal, undemocratic repression had left scars everywhere and this land with the lost footprint of houses, sturdy dwellings was almost symbolic of them.

The group was going through legal appeals, but all they knew is that they had to keep fighting with ACORN Honduras.  They had no idea whether they had any chance to win.