Tenant Rights and Landlord Power in Germany

Frankfurt         Spending some time walking around Rodelheim, a working-class neighborhood in Frankfurt, with tenant activists was an on the ground master’s course in tenant rights and landlord power in Germany.  The area is not gentrified exactly, but it is easy to see new developments coming in that could tip the scales dramatically.

Having just looked at renovictions and demovictions in British Columbia, I was full of questions as we walked passed numbers renovation projects in 4 and 5 story apartment buildings.  75% of Germans are tenants, so in areas like Rodelheim a single-family house is an unknown quantity and even the smallest houses are two and four family operations.  Demovictions, where properties are demolished and tenants evicted are rare here, I was told.  When we saw something coming up from the ground as new construction, it was after an old building had essentially collapsed and become inhabitable.

Renovictions were more commons, but there was a very different, very German twist.  The rehabs were ostensibly being done on older post-war buildings to make them greener and more environmentally sound, essentially creating an air zone to insulate the buildings better along with other upgrades.

 

Tenants were not exactly evicted.  In fact, tenants have permanent security of tenure in Germany.  There are no leases.  Once a tenant is in the flat, they can stay forever except for certain conditions like repeated nonpayment or engaging in criminal activity on the property.  The tenant almost gains an entitlement to the apartment.  Landlords, through their real estate owners’ association, have managed to take advantage of these tenants’ right in a costly way.  The modernization law allows them the option, which most gleefully exercise, of passing on the cost of the renovations with an increase in the rent to pay for the work over a period of years.  Every three years, landlords already have the right to exercise an option to raise the rent by up to 15%.  They can add on this modernization charte as well.  Because of this law within ten years most tenants will have collectively paid for the renovations.  Within twenty years, as these excess payments accumulate, the landlord will do even better since they can simply bank those increased rents.

The building where I’m staying in a spare room is a good example.  There are renovations ongoing on the outside cladding as well as on the elevators and so forth.  Some 40%, if I heard right, of the tenants have already left in anticipation of being assessed the increased cost of the renovations.  They were not evicted, but they read the writing, literally, on their walls.

The tenants have not been able to stop the rent increases that are coming, even though this big tower block is owned by a scientific foundation.  They have won noise abatement breaks in the construction of a half hour early in the day and in the afternoon and an hour around midday.  That is an unusual, but significant victory that may prevent the noise from chasing some tenants away, although the renovation pass-through to the tenants may be more effective in gentrifying the building.

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Blocking Renovictions: A New Anti-Gentrification Tool

ACORN Canada rally in Burnaby

Frankfurt      New West, a low-and-moderate income family suburb abutting Vancouver, British Columbia, is becoming ground zero for new policies to prevent gentrification and displacement in Canada, and perhaps globally with the passage of its latest city bylaw.  With housing prices averaging over $1 million in Vancouver every city and town within commuting distance is a battleground between developers, landlords, and tenants trying to stay in their homes and close to work and families.

Not surprisingly, New West is also an ACORN redoubt and the longtime location of ACORN Canada’s office in British Columbia.  Several years ago, ACORN, working with the city council had won the first living wage ordinance in Canada.  Indexed to inflation, the hourly wage there is helping sustain working families and is still the standard nationally even as other cities like Toronto have followed suit.

New West, Burnaby, and other Vancouver suburbs has been free-fire zones for what are known as “demovictions.”  In those cases, long term tenants are being evicted when smaller units are demolished and new higher rise apartment and/or condo complexes replace previously affordable housing alternatives for our families.  As families are priced out of Vancouver, the fight with developers over their strategies has been intense.

The New West council, led by longtime ACORN ally, Jamie McEvoy, passed with our support a measure that penalizes “renovictions.”  Renovictions are the process of evicting tenants by jacking up rents past affordability for renovations, rather than demolitions.  The new bylaw would fine landlords $1000 per day if they either evict someone without proper notice or do not give them the right to return to their apartment at the same rent level as they paid before the renovation.  Additionally, New West would vacate the landlord’s license to rent in the city as well, if they are using renovictions to cast off tenants.  This action in New West would be a powerful tool to prevent displacement with real teeth.

Landlords and their friends are obviously crying like stuck pigs and claiming this will mean that landlords will lose any incentive to improve their apartments.  Many of these renovations are simply long overdue upgrades that tenants have also demanded and what would normally be expected would be a landlord’s responsibility to provide habitable units in return for the rent being paid, making renovictions and minor improvements simply a guise for huge rent increases.

Obviously, the fight is not over to maintain affordability and decent standards in New West, and we have certainly not heard the last from developers and landlords.  In the meantime, ACORN Canada is going into hyperdrive to get information about this new tool on the agenda for city councils in Ottawa, Toronto, and other communities where displacement and gentrification are going full stream.

Go ye and do likewise!

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Please enjoy  Extra-Ordinary by Lost Leaders.  Thanks to KABF.

 

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